Reaction Time: Can't be taught but playing more= better reactions which are more often more important than fast reactions. I know a lot of people who have never reached as high as I have with better reaction time but who are unable to make correct decisions.
Peripheral Vision: Make it a habit to look at your minimap more often at least every 10s~ especially as support and jungle.
Fine motor skills / hand-eye coordination / Mouse accuracy: Find the dpi that fits your skill level. Start with lower dpi and if u feel confident work your way to higher dpi. Lower dpi might make your reactions slower but I think precision is more important than speed, especially in anything under diamond. (I personally peaked at d3 with only around 700 dpi which is quite low)
Spatial orientation: Well if you are a guy you luck out since male brains seem to be naturally slightly more inclined to spatial orientation other than that playing puzzle games can help with this, there isn't really anything you can do to help improve this in league itself expect familiarizing yourself with the size of various abilities/champs through lots of playtime.
Multitasking (or rather rapid sequential cognitive processing paired with muscle memory): This only improves through playing the game a lot, particularly playing a decent amount of the same champion with a similar style in order to become comfortable with the champions mechanics (mechanics here not only meaning how to use your abilities effectively but also knowing their approximate damage you do in regards to you items/levels vs the targets items/levels and when you should hold onto your abilities/summoner spells (ss))
Mindset: Just have fun, the minute you start to take the game overly seriously is when frustration sets in and your gameplay starts to suffer. Just think of every mistake you make as a learning opportunity and even continued mistakes can help with muscle memory so don't stress to much about making rapid improvements.
"Fighting Skills" - Reading the opponent
How skilled is my opponent? This mostly pertains to normals as your ranked games should have similar skill levels to you. They may be more mechanically inclined but understand how to take objects poorly. Either way don't worry too much about how good your opponent is.
Team Situation - 5 individuals
Tilting: Crack a cold one
Teamwork - how far can it go?: Really far considering that unless you are a split pusher or super fed teamwork is needed to win 90% of your matches.
I didn't answer the last questions because they are mostly personal questions that are ultimately down to your own judgement.
Movement / Actions
Attack Move, Auto cancelling: I don't use attack move at all so I can't comment on it and you can practice auto cancelling/ orb walking/ last hitting in training/sandbox mode
input buffering, target selection (using heroes only button or not): Heroes only button is most necessary under tower or near baron/dragon so don't worry to much about it. Input buffering only works on some abilities so you can get used to it if you are spamming like 40 champs for no reason.
Animation cancelling: Again champ specific I highly recommend if you are trying to improve to not play every single champ that looks cool. Otherwise don't worry about it, animation cancelling simply makes your champion more efficient but they aren't necessarily needed to be done at a high level to get better at the game.
Skillshot Usage: Play around with your DPI
Dodging: Don't focus solely on one thing. ie don't just farm without being aware of the enemy or aa without being aware of enemy champs in order to improve this. Also, try not to be predictable and dodge the same way every single time an enemy sends our a skill.
Flash mechanics, Collision, Pathing... SANDBOX MODE BABY
-Hero mechanics (skills, cooldowns, summoner spell synergies) SANDBOX MOD BABY
Smiting well usually you pair smite with a dmg ability so your smite does "more". Other than that its reaction timing with dmg output. Not much to say here.
Laning / Farming (Last-Hit, Stances, Lane Types) Sandbox for last hittinh
Wave control (really tough one) Watch vids to get used to it. idk I'm very comfortable with waves now so I think I would have a hard time explaining my thought process when its more reactionary now.
Trading (when, how, Outplay-Potential) This comes down to knowledge of champions/ how comfortable you are on champs/ how many times you have played the champ to know how to effectively trade.
Jungling: I don't jungle much sorry bro
Teamfight (Engage / Disengage, Location, Positioning) I need more info on what champs/roles your playing and vs who. Very circumstantial
Using the tab screen (some guys can caclulate the jungling route from that, sounds nice in theory, but quite hard to do in an actual match I find) Yeah it has to do with how many jungle creeps killed.
Map awareness (teleport / global skills) again look at you minimap often
Vision (did you ward, and was it efficient?) please buy pinks throughout the game as a support/jg
Sieging: again depends on roll/powerspikes/where your team is
Lane - Swap / Assignment; contesting CS: Rule of thumb if bot takes a turret early try to help another lane take a turret
Split Push (how and when or: "I split and my team dies"): Communicate with team regarding tp timers/ objective timers/ and make sure your team help ward if possible
Back to Base timing - It's all bout the money - or not... (Jungle!) don't jungle (;´༎ຶД༎ຶ`)
Objective Priorization - Win conditions
Objective Control: As a jungler try not to allow the enemy to take advantage of poor back timings by your laners to do dmg to turrets/ catch the wave. Also, ping when dragon /baron are up and tell your lanes to purchase items beforehand
Game phases (Early-Mid-Late)
Comminication (Chat / Ping)
Calls - whose call is right?: again there are so many possible calls this is hard to state as fact what is right/wrong
Tier List: You can look at winrates of champs on stuff like op.gg or watch pro games
Team composition: unless you are playing as a group most people will never try to make a good comp
Pick / Ban Phase: Just ban the few ops
Synergies / Counters: Not that big of a deal in lower elo tbh
other heroes' stats (cooldowns, damages, powerspikes...)
Champion Kits -
Itemization (+Runes / Masteries), situational Adaptation most champions have very VERY small adaptions to their build depending on the game such as what item they build first or changing out 1 defensive item for another so if you think some crazy build/mastery change is gonna be op it probably isn't. Just look up masteries/runes on sites like probuilds as long as you don't super F them up its fine tbh
Champion Pool / Champion Roles: Limit yourself so that you aren't playing 70 champs please
EDIT: Sorry about the late reply. Also, I rushed over some topic feel free to hit me up here on the forums or on league IGN: LoL Sucks